Frequently Asked Questions


What is gastroenterology?

Gastroenterology is a medical speciality focused on studying the digestive tract’s organs. It deals with analysing, preventing and treating diseases related to these organs.

What is gastrointestinal endoscopy?

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a visual examination of the esophagus’s mucosa, stomach and duodenum. It is also called Panendoscopy. The procedure is performed by inserting a flexible tube (endoscope) through the mouth. Thus, the doctor can see any abnormalities such as ulcers, polyps or tumors.

What is gastrointestinal motility?

Gastric motility is regulated by the Autonomic or Vegetative Nervous System (extrinsic control). Also, the parasympathetic with the production of acetylcholine stimulates gastric motility, and the sympathetic with the production of catecholamines inhibits muscle activity.

The esophagal peristalsis evaluates the esophagal motor disorders using high-resolution esophagal manometry.

What is biofeedback?

Biofeedback techniques generate auditory or visual signals using electronic instruments that allow a person to become aware of abnormal physiological and biological changes.

What is a percutaneous liver biopsy?

Liver biopsy is the medical process necessary to obtain a small sample of liver tissue for direct examination under a microscope.

What is colitis?

Colitis is a gastrointestinal disorder consisting of an inflammation of the colon and the large intestine.

What is a colonoscopy?

Colonoscopy is a visual exploration of the colon mucosa. The doctor can see abnormalities such as ulcers, polyps or tumors using an optical probe.

What is the duodenum?

In the digestive system, the duodenum is the part of the small intestine that connects the stomach to the jejunum. The duodenum is located in the upper and posterior parts of the abdomen. The retroperitoneum is the only fixed portion of the small intestine.


What are anus-rectum and colon endoscopy?

It is the direct visualization of the lower digestive tract, rectum and sigmoid. Endoscopy is a method of exploration performed with a sigmoidoscope using a cold light to see the mucosa of the lower digestive tract in the distal 25 cm in search of possible alterations.


What is upper gastrointestinal endoscopy?

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, or also (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) occupies an essential position in the diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of some pathologies.


Why is it not common to talk about anus-rectum diseases?

Anus-rectum pathologies are common in medical practice and have been neglected due to certain psychosocial and cultural factors. However, it is our duty as doctors to change this attitude, transmitting to our patient’s confidence and security. These kinds of problems should not be shameful or treated as isolated cases.


What is the esophagus?

The esophagus is part of the digestive tract of human beings. It is formed by a muscular tube of about 30 cm, connecting the pharynx with the stomach.


What is the stomach?

The stomach is the first portion of the digestive tract in the abdomen, excluding the small part of the abdominal esophagus. The stomach’s highly acidic environment was believed to keep it immune from infection. However, many studies indicate; that most cases of stomach ulcers, gastritis, lymphoma and even gastric cancer are caused by gastritis infection.


What is gastritis?

Gastritis is the inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which on gastroscopy, appears reddened. It presents in various forms of reddish images in flames or as subepithelial bleeding. However, the patient can get an accurate diagnosis by endoscopic examination.


What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition or disease affecting the liver. Its cause may be infectious (e.g. viral, bacterial), immune (autoantibodies, autoimmune hepatitis) or toxic (e.g. alcohol, poisons or drugs).


What is a hiatus hernia?

Hiatus hernia or hiatal hernia is a pathological situation that occurs when part of the stomach is displaced into the thorax. The esophagus enters the abdomen from the thorax through a hole in the diaphragm.


What is esophagal impedance?

Esophagal impedance is one of the most recent diagnostic tools in assessing gastroesophageal reflux disease. This technique is based on continuous monitoring of the esophagus’s electrical conductivity.


What is an anus-rectum manometry?

Anus-rectum manometry is a technique that allows assessing the movements of the anus and the rectum by recording the intrarectal and anal canal pressures. A probe is inserted through the anus after lubricating it with a gel. The probe is connected to a pressure recording device, transferring the information to a computer monitor.


What is esophagal manometry?

Esophageal manometry is used to measure the pressure inside the lower esophagus. When something is swallowed, the muscles in the esophagus contract to help push food into the stomach.


What is a 24 hr ambulatory PH test?

The esophageal PH test is defined as a widely diagnostic test used in the field of gastroenterology. It consists of recording the acidity levels of the esophagus by using a probe with acid-sensitive receptors and a computer in which the results are recorded. The patient can perform normal activities during the test and only have the probe for 24 hours.


What is the annoying gastroesophageal reflux?

The word reflux means to go against a flow, in this case, the normal flow of food. When swallowed, food passes from the mouth into the throat (pharynx), the esophagus, and the stomach. In the stomach, the food is mixed with gastric juices composed of acid.


What are gastric ulcers?

A peptic ulcer is a chronic disease with exacerbations and remissions. Usually, patients who remain free of recurrence with a gastric ulcer are higher.